Longlegs fact #4: Harvestmen have repugnatorial glands that produce compounds used in chemical defense.
These repugnatorial glands are also known as defensive glands, scent glands, stink glands or odoriferous glands. The repugnatorial glands are a major synapomorphic character of Opiliones. This means that the glands are a derived character, shared among all Opiliones (and their most recent common ancestor), but not among other arachnid groups (though other arachnids may have different chemical defense mechanisms). The glands produce chemical compounds that are meant to deter predators. The chemical compounds produced are very diverse but many are forms of quinones and phenols. The openings of the glands are on the body near the second pair of legs. The harvestmen usually release this secretion when threatened or disturbed.
The chemical compounds produced by some species can actually be detected by our own senses. When I collect harvestmen by hand I will sometimes smell them just out of curiosity (despite the crazy looks I get). The chemical compounds produced by some species are surprisingly potent! If I were a natural predator of harvestmen I would think twice about consuming them after getting a whiff of this. And no, I have not tried tasting them! Yet.
Although there will be many more interesting stories and facts that I will share about harvestmen in future posts, this post will conclude my series on the introduction to the biology of harvestmen.
Longlegs fact #3:
With more than 6,500 species, Opiliones represent the third largest order of Arachnida. The largest arachnid order is mites/ticks (order Acari) with more than 50,000 described species, followed by spiders (order Araneae) with more than 40,000 species. For a better frame of reference consider this: there are approximately 5,700 species of mammals in the world while there are more than 350,000 species of beetles in the world.
Almost every time I travel to a new place in Central America to collect harvestmen, new species are collected. So there’s plenty more work to be done in understanding and describing the diversity of this group.
Below are more photos of harvestmen from Costa Rica.
The arachnid order Opiliones has several common names in English including daddy longlegs, grand daddy longlegs and harvestmen. I have many wonderful things to share with you regarding the natural history of Opiliones so I’m going to post it in a series of about five posts. Here is the first fun fact to whet your appetite. Keep an eye out for the others very soon!
Longlegs fact #1: Daddy longlegs are NOT spiders.
They are also not insects. So what are they? Well, I’m glad you asked. Daddy longlegs are arachnids belonging to the order Opiliones. The subclass Arachnida includes spiders, scorpions, mites/ticks, daddy longlegs, and several smaller groups, all of which belong to different orders. So daddy longlegs are distantly related to spiders, but are actually more closely related to scorpions!
These incredible arachnids are easily overlooked, as they are most active at night and many species are very secretive in their behavior. Here’s a few examples of species from Costa Rica:
For more arachnid photos see my Arachnid gallery.
This is one of my personal favorites of all my macro shots. These tiny mushrooms were such a lucky find. When I realized how great the shots turned out I wanted to go back and try out some other camera settings. But by the time I returned the following day all of the mushrooms had been eaten. Location: Las Brisas Nature Reserve, near Turrialba, Costa Rica, July 2011.
I entered this photo in the “Art of Nature” photo contest at PhoozL.
Photo caption: From an insect’s viewpoint these mushrooms tower above creating a mystical landscape.
I love photographing herps! Especially the Red-Eyed Tree Frog of Central America. This frog is so photogenic that it is difficult to take a bad picture of these spectacular animals! These frogs are commonly represented as the face of conservation efforts to save the rainforest. Many frogs (and other amphibians) are rapidly becoming endangered because of habitat loss as well as the spread of a deadly chytrid fungus called Bd. See below for links to more information.
I recently submitted this photo to the “Art of Nature” photo contest on PhoozL.com . Click the first image below and it will take you to the PhoozL gallery for the contest. Its free to enter, so submit your own photos!
Here are some of my other favorites. I just never get tired of seeing these amazing frogs!
Here’s some links in case you are interested in learning more!