The family Colubridae is the most diverse family of snakes with almost 2,000 species, though this group is non-monophyletic (that is, in evolutionary terms, the group does not contain all descendants of the most recent common ancestral species). Thus, this family requires a great deal of work by taxonomists to sort out the natural groups and determine relationships among them.
Leptophis is a genus of colubrid snakes, commonly called parrot snakes. Parrot snakes are long, slender, bright green snakes found in the tropical forests of Central and South America.
The parrot snake shown in the first two images below, Leptophis ahaetulla (Colubridae), had just found itself a hearty meal. Despite having obviously lost this battle, the frog did not give up the fight so easily, as it kicked and squirmed until the very end. If you look at the expanded body of the snake you can see just how large this frog was – the snake was more than 4 feet in total length. Notice that the skin stretches as the snake swallows the frog – the blue coloration is the skin beneath the green scales.
(Click the images to see them in full size)
The next three photos are a second species of parrot snake, Leptophis depressirostris, barely distinguishable from the species shown above except for one scale between the eye and the nostril (just learned this interesting fact today from a friend, Ethan).
In the picture below, this parrot snake is demonstrating its incredible and intimidating defensive display.
Below you can see the body of a large tick, full of blood, attached under a scale on the snake’s neck.
I’ve been so busy writing other stuff (proposals and manuscripts) that I haven’t had time to post many pictures lately. That also means I haven’t been out much to take new pictures. So here are some photos from a couple weeks ago – a caterpillar that belongs to one of the species of swallowtail butterfly – probably the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (I also posted a photo of the adult for this species below).
The “eyes” that you see are not actually eyes at all. Instead this is a type of cryptic coloration (specifically mimicry) that has evolved to look like eyes as a defense mechanism.
We returned to Elk Knob State Park, NC – this time with some decent weather. It was clear enough that we got a nice view from the top of the mountain. Here’s a few random things I saw along the way as well as the view from the top!
I was out hiking the other day looking for harvestmen and spiders, but almost every large rock I turned yielded a salamander! Here’s one of the little guys hiding in some leaves.
The above image is actually a stack of two photos to get the depth of field I wanted on the face of this salamander.
During the arachnologist field trip to Toft Point in Wisconsin a couple weeks back, I was in the field collecting with opilionologist Jeff Shultz and arachnid photographer Joe Warfel. Jeff collected Caddo pepperella, a rare species of harvestman. Previously this species has only been collected in pitfall traps so this was the first time anyone has ever collected and photographed this species alive! I thank Jeff and Joe for giving me a chance to photograph the specimen.
Caddo pepperella is a tiny litter dwelling harvestman that very few people will ever observe out in the wild! The length of its body is less than ONE millimeter!!! And its legs are not much longer than a couple millimeters. But small as it is, relative to its body size, the eyes are huge!
Updated on 4/2/13 – species is Caddo pepperella, ID by J. Shultz.
Last Sunday, despite the gloomy weather forecast of 50% chance of rain all day, we decided to head out and hike the Glen Burney Trail along a small stream near Blowing Rock, NC. Its a great little 3 mile hike that visits several different falls along the way. I decided to get my feet wet, literally, to get some of these shots of the falls from various angles.
The ubiquitous species of harvestman Phalangium opilio was named by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. P. opilio is now distributed all over North America, where it has been introduced from Europe (thankfully it is not a pest!). The species range has also apparently spread into parts of Asia and Africa. This species thrives in a number of different habitats, including natural habitats, such as forests, as well as anthropogenic habitats/structures, such as under bridges, in gardens or green spaces.
Males of P. opilio have large horns on their chelicerae (pointing outward, away from the anterior end). These structures are used as weapons in male-male contests which most often results in the loser fleeing and the winner having a chance to mate with a nearby female.
Below are a few more photos from a field trip to Toft Point, WI during the 2012 meeting of the American Arachnological Society at UWGB.
Notes on image below: The cheliceral horns are the long pointed cones sticking off of the first pair of appendages (the chelicerae). The chelicerae bend downward, each terminating in a movable, pincer-like claw that is not visible here. Note that the male pedipalps are very long, unarmed, and appear as if they are an additional pair of legs (here the pedipalps are more gold in color, while the legs are black). This male is also missing the second walking leg on the near side of the body.
Image below: Same male, dors0lateral view.
Image below: Female from a dorsal view. The pedipalps are shorter and are held close to the body partially covering the smaller chelicerae of the female.
Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones. 2007. R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet (Eds.). Harvard University Press.
Willemart RH, Farine J-P, Peretti AV, Gnaspini P. 2006. Behavioral roles of the sexually dimorphic structures in the male harvestman, Phalangium opilio (Opiliones, Phalangiidae). Can. J. Zool. 84: 1763-1774.